ClickTale User Review

Is your website poorly performing? ClickTale will show you why
ClickTale is one of my Top 3 web analysis tools.  Its power and quick payoff are huge.  I wish I had more time to truly exploit it on a regular basis, I believe in it so much.

My Typical Use

When I’m first initiating a customer engagement after making sure they have basic analytics set up, I’ll install ClickTale on their site for 2 weeks.  During this time there will be no changes made to the site.  We’ll collect data on the users of the site in a way that is more advanced and telling than straight Google Analytics.

Here are the 3 features that have sold me on the product and make me fork over $99/month (this link will get you the Bronze Plan for $79/month):

Recorded User Sessions (Videos)

After you’ve tagged all pages of your site, you can literally watch one by one as your users move their mouse, type into your forms and click un-clickable images.  By the way, I love how they’ve coined them as videos, very approachable and easily understood.

In fact there is always at least one ah-ha moment within the first 5 sessions we review where we find a significant usability problem with the customer’s site.  As you present your proposal to a client, your VP or Marketing or your CEO, it’s always nice to know you can count on at least one instant win that sometime pays for all of your costs.

Once you’ve come down from the recording high, though, the filtering that you can do to focus on failures (see the jserror below), how different browser visitors experience your website and even engagement time, is where the tool really pays off.

ClickTale User Recording Video List

One of my favorite deep dives is to watch recording of users who came in through what I consider to be highly qualified organic search terms, but had very short (if not bouncing) visits.  I want to see their screen, watch their mouse move and attempt to put myself in their shoes to determine why they didn’t stay.

Mouse Move Heatmaps

This is total eye candy and one of the easy ways to win over those skeptical of your analysis.  Of course, you’ll need to follow-up with your hard core recommendations, but presentation is everything and heatmaps are a great first slide.

But these are not just static heatmaps.  And they really go beyond eye candy.  After two weeks of data you’ll know so much about how effective your web pages are that your client or boss will be converted and become engaged in learning more about how to improve your website.

You have to upgrade to the enterprise level to get heatmaps beyond just the one available in the Bronze package.  That package only maps your most popular page, usually the home page.  There’s a big jump in price beyond the Bronze package.  So I recommend starting with the Bronze package first to make sure it’s what you want.

But as you’ll learn, not only can you quickly see where the visitor’s mouse moves (with its 80% correlation to eye movement), but you can turn layers/filtering on and off to help you find what’s working and what may be causing confusion to your visitors.

Form analysis

This is another monster.  In addition to friendlier reporting on your conversion metrics, the tool, when combined with user recording, can really hone in on problems with forms.  Since so many of my clients are focused on lead generation, the completion of a form is the money shot.  Quickly finding holes in their lead funnels can justify months of future work looking for smaller lifts in conversions.

Form conversion report

Another Secret Weapon

I would probably pay the $99/month (discounted Bronze Plan for $79/month) for just these 3 features.  They are that empowering.  Other features of the Bronze package that I use less include:

  • Scroll reach heatmaps
  • Up to 3 domains tracked – perfect number for me
  • Click heatmaps
  • Link analytics
  • Event-based filtering
  • Custom email alerts

SPY on your Visitors

3 Powerful Conversion Rate Analyses, Courtesy of Your Web Analytics


Let’s pick apart three powerful conversion rates that I have been using web analytics to do deep dives with one of my customers.

Avinish Kaushik, years ago, shared his views on how to consider conversion rates and what not to do.  From his position these metrics may be too granular, but for my customer and me they are invaluable in learning more about how the website is used and what works for the visitors.

You are more than welcome to disagree, but that’s doesn’t mean they aren’t valuable!

Assumption: You have goals defined in your web analytics tool.  I use Google Analytics for this customer because they weren’t able to invest in Omniture’s SiteCatalyst.

I have micro-goals (7.0 Pages per Visit and 4.0 Minutes per Visit) as well as harder, more traditional goals (Form completions and Dynamic Phone Number Tracking) since my customer works in a B2C lead generation model where the sale is completed over the phone.

So here they are.  My 3 Powerful Conversion Rates

Blog visitor conversion rates

Using Google Analytics’ Advanced Segmentation I pulled out those visitors whose first page on their visit to our website (Content – Landing Pages in the Google Analytics world) was within our website’s blog section.   I’m showing their source/medium here for additional insight since many readers do not often get to peak into any firm’s web analytics data.

Blog Visitors Conversion Rates

These folks are interesting because the content of the blog is not lead generation material, but rather thought leadership and subject matter expertise in nature.

And as you might expect, they’ve done well on the soft goals over the past 3 months, but their conversion rate on the more important hard goals of form completions are near zero.

Keyword conversion rates

Here we are back to looking at the entire visitor population at large via web analytics.

Keyword Conversion Rates

What’s interesting here is the comparison of the soft goal conversion rates compared with the earlier example of blog visitors. You’ll notice the blog visitors were much more inclined to visit more pages and spend more time on the site than some of the search-based keyword visitors.  Note that we had no paid search going on during this window, so we are only considering organic searchers.

But you will notice that the hard conversion rates jump significantly for a handful of keywords.    It’s worth noting that 3 of the top keywords that have been blurred out are branded keywords and have higher conversion rates as expected.

That would be worth another look to see how your branded keywords perform against your non-branded keywords.  Through segmentation you could easily put those two groups side-by-side.

Mobile device conversion rates

With the recent launch of the iPad I personally like to track this conversion rate to see how it measures up against the others.

Mobile Visitors Conversion Rates

Since this customer’s site has not yet been converted/adapted for the mobile devices you can see that overall it is performing miserably with them.  Aside from the iPad and Samsung, our soft goals are near zero.

An interesting side note on these data points, those two operating systems had screen resolutions of 768×1024 and 231×264, respectively.  I find it odd that such a small resolution on the Samsung would generate high soft conversion rates.  To investigate another day.

The Missing Power Conversion Rates

I, personally, dissect conversion rates many different ways with a majority of them proving useless.  It’s not until you find that handful of enlightening views, which always differ by customer, that you take a leap forward in improving their visitor experience while also providing that conversion rate lift that your customer is constantly seeking.

But if you’re into that level of detail, combined with knowing what affects the business, you’ll get closer to that elusive title of digital strategist, marketing technologist or just plain online marketing fanatic.

Advanced Segments in Google Analytics – Examples to Get Started

Advanced Segments in Google Analytics solve a problem for me!

For all of my forward thinking in designing and tagging a client’s website to track and report on key performance indicators, inevitably there will come a need to dissect historical data prior to custom variable or profiles being implemented.

Advanced Segments Pulldown

That’s where the beauty of advanced segments (released by Google Analytics in late 2008) comes in to save the day.  This feature allows users to pull out subsets of their visitor data and view them as though they were the only data within all reports of Google Analytics.

For example, you already know from your default dashboard (shame on you for not customizing it yet for your needs, not those of the masses) what percentage of your visitors comes in directly (or through search or through referrals).  But wouldn’t it be nice to have many of the reporting tools available to you for just that advanced segment?

Google Analytics has useful predefined segments:

  • All Visits (the default  – what you’ve been viewing since Day One)
  • New Visitors
  • Returning Visitors
  • Paid Search Visitors
  • Non-paid Search Visitors
  • Search Traffic
  • Direct Traffic
  • Referral Traffic
  • Visits with Conversions
  • Mobile Traffic
  • Non-bounce traffic

These are some great advanced segments to get you started.  But the real value comes when you define your own segments tailored and personalized in a way no package could predict.

Examples from clients

Some were used one time to track down an issue or answer a single question; others are used regularly as part of my key performance indicator (KPI) strategy:

Here’s my shorthand: (Advanced Segment Friendly Name) = (syntax of the advanced segment definition)

  • Google Analytics Segments ListBlog Pages = Page starts with /blog
  • Indian Visitors = Country/Territory Matches exactly India
  • Non-Indian Visitors = Country/Territory Does not match exactly India
  • ABCkeyword = Keyword contains ABC
  • Keyword is DEF = Keyword Matches exactly DEF
  • Keyword is not DEF = Keyword Does contain DEF
  • Google Searchers = Source Matches exactly google
  • GHI LP = Landing Page Matches exactly /GHI
  • JKL conversions = Goal4 Completions Equal to 1
  • Campaign MNO = Campaign Matches exactly MNO
  • 404 Page Not Found Advanced Segment404 Reports = Page Contains /404.html
  • Visits With Site Search = Site Search Status  Matches exactly Visits With Site Search
  • Non-Customers = Page Does not match exactly /AAA/BBB
  • Non-Customers Non-Paid = Page Does not match exactly /AAA/BBB AND Medium Does not match exactly cpc
  • Firefox Browsers = Browser Matches exactly Firefox
  • Goal Completions = Goal1 Completions Greater than 0 AND Goal2 Completions…
  • Goal Starts = Goal1 Starts Greater than 0 …

BOLD ITALICS LETTERS are client-specific terms.

Each of these advanced segments can be turned on and combined with others to compare and contrast.  The power of this level of reporting is huge and should be exploited.

Once you’ve mastered Advanced Segments you’ll move to Custom Reports, Intelligence and then really get into the tagging of your visitors, events and conditions during their visits.  This will allow you to perform deep forensics and pull data and information that will drive fundamental business decisions.

Twitter Referrals and Web Analytics – A Broken Referral Link

Broken Twitter Referral Link

If you are obsessed about your web analytics or your customer’s web analytics as I am, then you may have noticed a problem where Twitter referral traffic is being recorded as direct entry traffic rather than referral traffic.

Don’t mess with my numbers, man!

I work hard to keep my numbers clean.  I do it for my sites, my employer’s sites and my customer’s sites.  Without this anal retentive attitude you cannot make higher level business decisions.  The supporting data is flawed so your assumptions are broken.

But that’s a rant for another day.  Just suffice it say that you need to constantly test your data to make sure it’s legit.

Who Can I Blame?

Web Analytics Referrals From Twitter

Here’s the problem in a nutshell. When you click from one web page to another the browser usually passes referral data to the receiving page.  That data is then recorded by your web analytics program so you can report on where your visitors arrive from.

In Google Analytics they break it down into 3 buckets initially, Direct, Search and Referral.  Now, if I tweet this blog post’s URL through Twitter, I want those click-throughs back to the site to be recorded as referrals from Twitter. Likewise when others retweet me I want them to also be recorded as referrals, not direct entries.

But the Twitter model has introduced a new presentation screen different from browsers.  HootSuite and TweetDeck are popular applications used to “dashboard” Twitter activity (along with Facebook and LinkedIn).  These applications and their tight relationship to URL shorteners, do not always pass the referral data (needed by web analytics tools) you would normally see if they had come from the domain via a browser.

If you want the down and dirty details behind it visit Danny Sullivan’s forensic work on it.

Make The Numbers Match!

Connecting Twitter Visitors In Web Analytics

Fine.  It’s a problem.  But you need to solve it, right?

Again in a nutshell: force the referral information to be preserved as visitors click through Twitter to your website.  This is done with link tagging.

  • Using Google Analytics, we can go to their URL builder and force-tag our link before we put it into our tweet.
    • Of course that gets really painful if you tweet more than once a week.  So check out Snip-N-Tag for an inline method of adding link tagging for Google Analytics.  Pain relieved!
  • Using Omniture’s SiteCatalyst, you can create a campaign in your report suite for all of your Twitter postings.  Then append the campaign id (e.g. s_cid) to every one of your tweets.  You’ll also need to further manipulate some of your variables to ensure they’re attributed to referral traffic, but that’s beyond this post.

I always try to include link tagging on every link I place out there.  Even ones that are not destined for one of my sites.  Nothing speaks to an analytics guy or gal more than looking in their report and seeing your traffic to their site jumping off the screen with campaigns names.

I should really share that treat here!  Next week.

Web Analytics for Banks, Three Reasons to Start Today

Web Analytics For Banks

This one I don’t get!  There aren’t many, but I still run across a few banking websites not running web analytics.  Credit unions are the worst offenders, by the way.

Why is this?

Why not throw Google Analytics on there for free?  If nothing else, have it there knowing you’ll always have a benchmark should you ever need it one day. Which leads me right into…

The three reasons to implement web analytics today!

Benchmarking Your Web AnalyticsWho’s Been Sleeping In My Bed?

1. Benchmarking

I’ve said before in posts, if you don’t have web analytics installed on your website then don’t talk to me.  When I am asked to come in for an assessment I need data.  Sure I could pore over log files, but that takes a significant amount of time (the banks’ money) and rarely does it allow me to push up the data in a manner needed by my customers to make the higher level business decisions.

One day you or a consultant is going to be called in to answer some very tough questions about a past event or what to expect during an upcoming seasonal event important to your financial institution.

No web analytics = No insight = GUESSWORK

Attribution Of Your Web ChannelsWhose Phone Numbers Is This?

2. Attribution

  • Do you know the makeup of search traffic vs. referrals vs. direct visits?
  • Are your targeted SEO keywords actually the ones driving the most traffic?
  • After your homepage, which is the most common first page?  Does that page represent your banks in the best light?

This list goes on.  You get the point.  Even the simplest of analytics implementations allows you to go back and answer questions you didn’t know you needed to answer.

One of my favorite questions I pose to my clients.  “Which site drives the most traffic to you?  No wait, which site drives the most converting traffic to you?  Oh, it’s the ACME School District in the neighboring county?”  Well it’s time to see what’s going on with their website and thank the author of that inbound link, but not for the SEO value of the link.  I’ll take a converting link over a hundred non-converting links all day.

But how would you know?

Action-Oriented TacticsLet’s Be More Than Friends!

3. Action Time

You’re ready to move to that next step with your website, right?  But what does that mean?  Can banks really actively impact online banking customers?

It should mean that you’re ready to confidently move those website KPIs you defined for your site and your marketing plan for the bank.  Now is when the analytics for banking really kicks in.  You will start tagging your campaigns, building those advanced segmentation reports and tweaking those budget allocations.  From there you will grow into the next level of testing, redesigning and experimenting with new concepts.

The nice part of the “action time” is the immediate feedback you’ll receive.  You can quickly can the losers and mutate the winners into more powerful tactics.

This iterative process will put your bank years ahead of your competition in a matter of months.

Addictive Web AnalyticsThis Is Some Serious Crack!

Web analytics gets addictive.

Well maybe to those of us who live in that lonely chasm between marketing and technology/IT.  I love it here.  The impact a smart business analyst can have on your bank’s bottom line is an order of magnitude more than you could ever spend on the software needed to empower that analyst.

But don’t wait for that analyst to be hired or contracted.

Install the analytics now so when he does come on board he can quickly knock it out of the park.

New Google Analytics Tag – Faster, Better, Stronger

Google AnalyticsYesterday, Google announced their new Google Analytics tag to speed up page loads that will become the default code snippet provided for profiles.  This is right in line with Google’s new obsession with page speed.

Google Analytics New Asynchronous Code Snippet

While the new Google Analytics tag is very light, if you start to add a lot of scripts to a site like I do, they start to add up.  Allowing for the asynchronous loading (separate processing) of the tag your webpages will load that much faster and therefore the code snippet will not penalize your site speed nor your visitor’s experience.

I recommend you go back to all of your Google Analytics-tagged pages and change them out to this new snippet.  Likewise, you really need to look into the load times of your webpages.  It could be hurting your rankings.

Tracking web analytics goals on all of your websites

Do you have Google Analytics installed? I really don’t want to talk to you until you have it installed!

Install Web Analytics Now

That’s what I tell my friends and family before I’ll even entertain answering a question.  And now I’m telling you that.  If you were a potential customer or a professional acquaintance maybe I’d say it a little more nicely, but I really don’t want to talk to you until you do.

You’re going to ask me why your website isn’t bringing in new business, how to better use Facebook or Twitter, how much to spend on Google AdWords or how do you get to the #1 position on Google for the term “refinance”.

Are you watching them?

Look, if you don’t have any idea how people currently using your website, what could you possibly want me to do to help you?  Anything I did would be credited to some other marketing activity and you’d feel like I wasted your time and possibly your money.

So unless you and I both know where we are starting from, then we’ll never know if anything we’re doing is working.

By the way, if you don’t know what web analytics is, then we’re even worse off.  Go read some good sources and get back to me.  It’s not that hard, but you need to understand it at a high level.

OK, now you have your analytics installed.  I now want to know if people are doing (or not doing) what you want them to do on your website.

Web Analytics GoalsI’m talking about tracking goals

Goals that you have defined as valuable to you and your website.  I’m talking about:

  • Some magical time on your website. For example: 4 minutes looking around your website.
  • Viewing at least 8 pages of your website.
  • Filling out a contact form.
  • Buying a product.
  • Signing up for your newsletter.
  • Subscribing to your website’s RSS feed.
  • Viewed your “About Me” page.

Sure, web analytics track some great metrics out of the box like:

  • unique visitors
  • pageviews
  • bounce rates
  • keywords people used to find you
  • and a whole lot more

This brings me to goal of this post: set up goals on your website now. They’re free and can always be deleted later, but you will never be able to recreate them looking back.

In Google Analytics, you can set up 20 goals in each profile and create unlimited profiles.

So create your goals now

  • If you want to measure how many visitors spent at least 4 minutes on your website, then choose a goal type of “Time on Site”google analytics goal time on site
  • If you want to measure how many people viewed at least 8 pages of your website, then choose a goal type of “Pages/Visit”google analytics goal pages per visit
  • If your visitors fill out a form, then you should have (if not, change your form tool or add the redirect) a “Thank You” page.  That page is your URL destination in the goal page of Google Analyticsgoogle analytics goal form completion
  • If you sell a product, again you have a “Confirmation” page.  Use that as your URL destination.
  • If they sign up for a newsletter, then have use the confirmation page as your URL destination.
  • If you just consider it a success to view your “About” page (who wouldn’t, right?), then use that as your URL destination.
  • If you want to track those who subscribe, it gets a little hairier.  Ideally your feed supplier will have tracking capabilities linked into that support your web analytics tool.  If not, you could create a goal around those that click on the subscribe button (knowing they may never complete the subscription) using onclick=”pageTracker._trackPageview(‘/trackrss’); Check this out for more detail.

We can talk now

Now you’re tracking not just visits to your website, but interactions with your website.  But more importantly you are creating a baseline that will allow you to measure the impact of future changes.

If you don’t know where you are today, you’ll never know if you have moved tomorrow.

OK, so now we can talk.  Now I’ll take a look around and help you with your goals.

Don’t Count Yourself – Exclude your company from your analytical reports

No matter what the size of your company, your (and your co-workers) can have a significant impact on your analytics data.

Depending on the purpose of your website, internal visitors may or may be interesting to track.  If internal visitors are treated equally to exxternal visitors, then stop reading now.  Your analytical tool likely have you covered by default.

But if you don’t want to see your internal traffic on your reports, then keep reading.

There are three primary methods to exlude this traffic:

  1. Place a cookie on the to-be-excluded machine.
  2. Identify which domain name you want to exclude.
  3. Identify which IP address you want to exclude.

For Google Aanlytics, they have done a great job explaining the necessary steps.

For Omniture’s SiteCatalyst, go to “Admin” and choose “Exclude by IP”.  From there you can enter the necessary IP addresses as well as look for a link that takes you to the page where you can place a cookie on you machine.  Hint: The link is hidden in the Overview paragraph.

Here one trick you may need.  If you need to exclude multiple IP addresses from your Google Analytics account it could be very daunting to type them and apply them to many different profiles.  Note: I have not found a similar trick for SiteCatalyst yet.  Also note that if your IP addresses are adjacent to each other in number sequence, you can use wildcards more easily.  This is for distinct IP that are not remotely similar to one another.

Within your Google Analytics account, click on the Filter Manager option at the bottom.  Then choose “Add Filter”.  Name your filter “ ip range 1”, Predefined Filter,  Exclude, “traffic from the IP addresses” and Match.

In the IP address field you will type in a regular expression.  So if you wanted to exclude 2 IP address with one filter, and, you would type in:


You can continue to add your IP address until you reach the 255 character limit.  In my experience it safest to limit this to 10-12.  To create this long regular expression, use Excel with the CONCATENATE formula.  So you may need multiple filters depending upon how many addresses you need to exclude.

Now if you have just applied this filter to one of your profiles.  If you need to apply it many more, just go into Filter Manager, edit the filter and apply it to each appropriate profile.

Hope this helps.  Let me know how it goes.

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Are You Tracking Your Broken Inbound Links? Your 404 Pages Not Found?

I see this happening all of the time with company sites.  Not only do they have no handling of “404 page not found”, if they do handle it there is no tracking of what page the visitor was trying to reach.

So let’s think about this.  Someone has come to your site through a bad link and here’s the results.

  1. They get peeved by the bad link and abandon your site.  You just lost money.
  2. You even don’t know they came and went.
  3. You don’t know where the bad link is out on the web.  So you can’t fix it.

Now here are the solutions:

  1. Oh Snap!  Create a custom 404 page according to some best practices out there.  Each time I do this I look up great examples and borrow their ideas.
  2. Track hits to your 404 page.  This will show you which pages are not being found as well as show you where the links are coming from.  Have these reports sent to you on a daily basis.  Else you lose more traffic.
    • Google Analytics has a simple addition to the JavaScript tracking code on the 404 page.
    • Omniture SiteCatalyst: in the code of your 404 page, leave s.pageName=”” blank and set s.pageType=”errorPage”.  This will create a custom entry into your “Pages Not Found” report in SiteCatalyst.
  3. Once you know which pages are being requested but not found, create a 301 redirect to the closest matching page you have.  Don’t give them options if you know where they should be going.  If you’re not sure where they should go (you are the webmaster, aren’t you?), then send them to a tables of contents page.  Not the sitemap.html or sitemap.xml page, but rather a page with a few targeted pages that will help them decided.
  4. Contact the owner of the inbound links and fix the problem.  Sometimes it’s as simple as claiming your business on a review page, other times it’s going to be harder because they’re in someone’s blog comments.  At least you’ll have the 301 to back you up.

Don’t be blind to this visitor loss.  Everyone has bad inbound links.  Fix yours or lose money.

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How Banking Institutions Can Benefit from Web Analytics

If you have been thinking that public perceptions of the banking industry have been sinking over the last year, you are correct. In fact, in a report by J.D. Power and Associates, they state that the overall satisfaction with retail banking experiences is down considerably since 2007. Along with the banking financial bailout situation, consumers are reporting being unhappy about banks offering poor problem resolution, having long wait times, and charging additional fees. So just what is a bank to do? Think about improving your customer’s online experience by leveraging the power of Web analytics.

Web Analytics for Banks

The banking industry, just like most others, is a prime candidate to use Web analytics to improve their customer’s experience. After all, of the biggest problems that consumers cite for being unhappy with their bank, and ultimately leading them to switch to a new one, can be addressed through their online presence. You can help streamline your customer’s banking experience by offering them a safe and smoothly operating site where they can conduct their transactions, leaving wait times behind. You can also address many of their problems online through a good customer service, a frequently asked questions page, or a knowledge base system.

Using Web analytics, a bank can use the information collected to learn about what their customers need and want. Then they can aim to fill those gaps, offer them what they need, and make their experience easier and more satisfying, so they remain customers. Besides, research shows that satisfied online banking customers are more likely to tell others about their experience than satisfied customers that do their banking in person.

The Benefits

While most large banks have already taken advantage of using Web analytics, many others are still sitting on the sideline. The analytic process measures the performance of your site and what the customers are doing. It can also let you know how long they stay on your site, what pages they arrive through and what pages they tend to exit on. It can also give you an idea of who is using your site.

Online banking has become the direction that many people have gone in the last several years. Web analytics can help you not only bring in more new customers, but also allow for comparison between how many you are getting online versus in person. The process can also help increase the conversion rate of bringing in new customers online by identifying what search terms people are using to find your site, see what banner ads are working and which are not, narrow down your audience, and identify how to reach them online.

Additionally, Web analytic tools can help create a better customer experience by making sure new and potential customers are served pages to help get them to register, while it offers current customers pages that are relevant to them. It can also serve them pages that offer additional products to meet help their needs and expand the business they do with you.

Looking Ahead

Most likely, we have yet to see online banking reach its fullest potential. But as banks begin to see the benefits of being online, they can also utilize the informational tools at their disposal in order to help improve a smooth customer experience.

Whether you use Web analytics for e-mail marketing purposes or to see just how effective a site you are offering your customers, the possibilities of the tool is far reaching. And according to the J.D. Power study, higher customer satisfaction translates to committed customers, which is good news for banks and customers alike.


10 Things Web Analytics Can Do For Your Site:

  • Identify key search terms used to locate your site.
  • Determine what banner ads are successful.
  • Compare how many customers join online versus in person.
  • Help narrow your audience and locate them online.
  • Offer relevant pages to potential and new customers, as well as produce better results.
  • Measure the overall performance of your site.
  • Give you an idea of who is using your site, how long they stay, etc.
  • Find out what page customers enter and exit on.
  • Help determine what your customers want and need.
  • Increase customer satisfaction rate.